Optional Subject – Hindi Literature
Section: ‘A’ (History of Hindi language and Nagari script)
- A grammatical and applied form of Apabhransh, Avhatta and early Hindi.
- The development of Braj and Awadhi as a literary language in the medieval period.
- Siddha and Nath literature, Khusro, saint literature, Rahim etc. poets and the initial form of Khadi dialect in Deccan Hindi.
- Development of Khadi Boli and Nagari script in the nineteenth century.
- Standardization of Hindi language and Nagari script.
- Development of Hindi as the national language during the independence movement.
- Development of Hindi as the official language of the Indian Union.
- Scientific and technical development of Hindi language.
- Major dialects of Hindi and their interrelation.
- The salient features of Nagari script and its improvement efforts and the form of standard Hindi.
- Grammatical structure of standard Hindi.
Section: ‘Kh’ (History of Hindi literature)
- The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and the tradition of writing history of Hindi literature.
- Literary trends of the following four periods of the history of Hindi literature
(a) Adikal: Siddha, Nath and Raso literature.
Leading poets: Chandbardai, Khusro, Hemachandra, Vidyapati.
(B) Bhakti period: saint poetry stream, Sufi poetry, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara. Major poets: Kabir, Jayasi, Sur and Tulsi.
: Ritikavya, Ritwit Kavya, Ritmikat Kavya Poets Major poets: Keshav, Bihari, Padmakar and Ghanananda.
(D) Modern period: (a) Renaissance, development of prose, Bharatendu Mandal (b) Lead author: Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt and Pratap Narayan Mishra.
(E) Main trends of modern Hindi poetry. Shadowism, Progressivism, Experimentalism, New Poetry, New Song, Contemporary Poetry and Populist Poetry.
Top Poets: Maithilisharan Gupta, Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Mahadevi Verma, Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’, Sachchidananda Hiranand Vatsyayan ‘Agnayya’, Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh, Nagarjuna.
- Narrative Literature:
(a) Novel and Realism
(b) Origin and Development of Hindi Novels
(c) Major Novelists: Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhishma Sahni.
(D) The origin and development of Hindi story.
(E) Major storytellers: Premchand, Jaishankar Prasad, Sachchidananda Hiranand Vatsyayan ‘Agnayya’, Mohan Rakesh and Krishna Sobti.
- Drama and Theater:
(a) Origin and development of Hindi drama
(b) Major playwrights: Bharatendu, Jaishankar Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ramkumar Verma, Mohan Rakesh.
(C) Development of Hindi theater.
(a) Emergence and development of Hindi criticism – theoretical, practical, progressivist, psychoanalytic criticism and new review.
(B) Major critics – Ramchandra Shukla, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma and Nagendra.
- Other genres of Hindi prose: Fine essays, sketches, memoirs, travelogue.
You will be required to read the basic textbooks prescribed in this paper and such questions will be asked to test the critical ability of the candidate.
Section: ‘A’ (poetry literature)
- Kabir: Kabir Granthwali (initial 100 posts) no. Shyam Sundar Das
- Surdas: Bhramargeet Sar (Initial 100 verses) No. Ramchandra Shukla
- Tulsidas: Ramcharit Manas (Sundar Kand), Kavitavali (North Kand)
- Jayasi: Padmavat (Sinhaldwip section and Nagmati disconnection block) No. Shyam Sundar Das
- Bihari: Bihari Ratnakar (Initial 100 couplets) S.No. Jagannath Das Ratnakar
- Maithilisharan Gupta: Bharat Bharti
- Jaishankar Prasad: Kamayani (Concern and Devotion)
- Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’: Raga-Virag (Rama’s Shakti Pooja and Kushmutta) S.No. Ram Vilas Sharma
- Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’: Kurukshetra
- Agnayya : The gate across the courtyard (Asadhyavina)
- Liberation Perception: Brahmarakshas
- Nagarjuna: The cloud is seen to be surrounded, the famine and then the Harijan saga.
Section: ‘B’ (prose literature)
- Bharatendu: India’s plight
- Mohan Rakesh: A Day of Ashadha
- Ramchandra Shukla: Chintamani (Part-1), (what is poetry, devotion-devotion).
- Essay Ventures: Editor: Dr. Satyendra. Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hazariprasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agnayya, Kuberanath Rai.
- Premchand: Godan, Best Stories of ‘Premchand’ (Editor: Amrit Rai)
- Prasad: Skandagupta
- Yashpal: Divya
- Phaniswarnath Renu: Sloppy Aanchal
- Mannu Bhandari: Mahabhoja
- Rajendra Yadav (Ed.): One World Parallel (All Stories)