Genome Mapping in the Indian Ocean

Genome Mapping in the Indian Ocean

Why in discussion?

National Institute of Oceanography (National Institute of Oceanography- NIO) The Indian Ocean is the first of its kind in the (Indian Ocean) genome mapping is planned to start (Genome Mapping) project.

  • The Indian Ocean is the third largest water body in the world and contains about 20% of the water present on the surface of the Earth.

key points

an objective:

  • Collecting samples for genome mapping of microorganisms in the Indian Ocean.
  • Understanding biochemistry and the response of the ocean to climate change, nutrient depletion and increasing pollution.

Project cost and duration:

  • The total cost of the project is Rs 25 crore and will take three years to complete.

About the project:

  • A team of scientists and researchers from NIO will spend 90 days on this research project in the Indian Ocean over 10,000 nautical miles through a vessel called Sindhu Sadhana to know the working of the ocean’s interior.
    • They will travel from the eastern coast of India to Australia, Port Louis (Mauritius) and from the west coast of India to the Pakistan border.

Genome collection:

  • Researchers are about 5 km from different parts of the sea. Will collect samples at an average depth of.
  • Just like gene mapping is done on blood samples collected from humans, scientists will map bacteria, microbes found in the sea.
  • The nutrients present in them and their depletion in different parts of the ocean will be detected by the mapping of deoxyribose nucleic acid DNA ) and ribonucleic acid RNA ) .

Study of trace metals:

  • Oceans cadmium or copper are trace metals (Trace Metal) supply is the continental run-off, through atmospheric deposition, hydrothermal activities etc.
    • These metals are essential for ocean productivity.
  • It is important to know the interactions of trace metals “for the overall understanding of nutrient recycling and the productivity of the oceans” along with marine biota .
  • In addition to their reactions to marine life, the use of isotopic forms of trace metals as a tool to detect the motion of water masses responsible for ocean circulation and to analyze biological, geochemical, ecosystem processes and food webs. is done.
  • This project of NIO may provide new information about trace metals from non-projected areas of the Indian Ocean.


  • To understand the ecosystem:
    • This project will help scientists understand the inner workings of the ecosystem of the Indian Ocean.
  • To understand the factors of change:
    • This research will help scientists identify various factors that control and affect changes in RNA and DNA in the oceans.
  • In identifying mineral concentrations:
    • To examine the presence of micronutrients such as nitrates, sulfates, silicates and trace metals such as iron ore, zinc and cadmium or copper in the ocean.
    • Genome mapping will indicate the presence of microorganisms in response to atmospheric carbon dioxide, as well as the presence that led to their conversion.
    • This will help to find out which part of the ocean has a higher concentration of which mineral or element.
    • Scientists will thereafter suggest possible solutions to deal with and mitigate the causative factors for excess or deficiency of a certain mineral or element.
  • Human benefits:
    • DNA and RNA pools will be used in future to utilize the Indian Ocean for human benefit.
  • Enhancing the application of biotechnology:
    • Genome mapping can enhance the application of commercial biotechnologies such as anti-cancer treatment, cosmetics, etc.
  • Optimization of conservation efforts:
    • Exploring the genetic level of the ocean Taxonomy / taxonomy will create new insights (Taxonomy) and adaptability, which can help in its conservation efforts.

The genome

  • The sequence of all genes present in the DNA of any organism (or RNA in RNA viruses ) is called a genome .
  • Each genome contains all the information necessary to create and maintain a related organism.
  • A copy of the entire genome of humans contains more than 3 billion DNA bases.

Genome mapping

  • Location of a gene and techniques of various kinds to be used to identify the distance between the gene genome mapping (Genome Mapping) is called.
  • Department of Biotechnology (DBT) in January 2020 human genome project inspired by (Human Genome Project), the ambitious ” genome India Project ” launched (Genome India Project). The goal of this project is to collect genetic samples of 10,000 citizens from all over India, so that a reference genome can be constructed.

National Institute of Oceanography

  • About National Institute of Oceanography:
    • It is a multi-disciplinary oceanographic research institute and one of the constituent laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi.
  • Headquarters and other centers:
    • The center is headquartered in ‘Dona Paula’ (Goa) and three regional offices are located at Kochi (Kerala), Mumbai (Maharashtra) and Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).
  • Installation:
    • Founded 1960, the International Indian Ocean Expedition under (International Indian Ocean Expedition) was January 1, 1966 respectively.
  • Research Area:
    • The main function of this institute is to examine and understand the oceanic characteristics of the Indian Ocean.
    • This institute conducts research in the branches related to biological, chemical, geological and physical characteristics of oceanography, as well as research in ocean engineering, marine equipment and marine archeology.

Source: Indian Express

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