Genome Mapping in the Indian Ocean
Why in discussion?
National Institute of Oceanography (National Institute of Oceanography- NIO) The Indian Ocean is the first of its kind in the (Indian Ocean) genome mapping is planned to start (Genome Mapping) project.
- The Indian Ocean is the third largest water body in the world and contains about 20% of the water present on the surface of the Earth.
- Collecting samples for genome mapping of microorganisms in the Indian Ocean.
- Understanding biochemistry and the response of the ocean to climate change, nutrient depletion and increasing pollution.
Project cost and duration:
- The total cost of the project is Rs 25 crore and will take three years to complete.
About the project:
- A team of scientists and researchers from NIO will spend 90 days on this research project in the Indian Ocean over 10,000 nautical miles through a vessel called Sindhu Sadhana to know the working of the ocean’s interior.
- They will travel from the eastern coast of India to Australia, Port Louis (Mauritius) and from the west coast of India to the Pakistan border.
- Researchers are about 5 km from different parts of the sea. Will collect samples at an average depth of.
- Just like gene mapping is done on blood samples collected from humans, scientists will map bacteria, microbes found in the sea.
- The nutrients present in them and their depletion in different parts of the ocean will be detected by the mapping of deoxyribose nucleic acid ( DNA ) and ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) .
Study of trace metals:
- Oceans cadmium or copper are trace metals (Trace Metal) supply is the continental run-off, through atmospheric deposition, hydrothermal activities etc.
- These metals are essential for ocean productivity.
- It is important to know the interactions of trace metals “for the overall understanding of nutrient recycling and the productivity of the oceans” along with marine biota .
- In addition to their reactions to marine life, the use of isotopic forms of trace metals as a tool to detect the motion of water masses responsible for ocean circulation and to analyze biological, geochemical, ecosystem processes and food webs. is done.
- This project of NIO may provide new information about trace metals from non-projected areas of the Indian Ocean.
- To understand the ecosystem:
- This project will help scientists understand the inner workings of the ecosystem of the Indian Ocean.
- To understand the factors of change:
- This research will help scientists identify various factors that control and affect changes in RNA and DNA in the oceans.
- In identifying mineral concentrations:
- To examine the presence of micronutrients such as nitrates, sulfates, silicates and trace metals such as iron ore, zinc and cadmium or copper in the ocean.
- Genome mapping will indicate the presence of microorganisms in response to atmospheric carbon dioxide, as well as the presence that led to their conversion.
- This will help to find out which part of the ocean has a higher concentration of which mineral or element.
- Scientists will thereafter suggest possible solutions to deal with and mitigate the causative factors for excess or deficiency of a certain mineral or element.
- Human benefits:
- DNA and RNA pools will be used in future to utilize the Indian Ocean for human benefit.
- Enhancing the application of biotechnology:
- Genome mapping can enhance the application of commercial biotechnologies such as anti-cancer treatment, cosmetics, etc.
- Optimization of conservation efforts:
- Exploring the genetic level of the ocean Taxonomy / taxonomy will create new insights (Taxonomy) and adaptability, which can help in its conservation efforts.
- The sequence of all genes present in the DNA of any organism (or RNA in RNA viruses ) is called a genome .
- Each genome contains all the information necessary to create and maintain a related organism.
- A copy of the entire genome of humans contains more than 3 billion DNA bases.
- Location of a gene and techniques of various kinds to be used to identify the distance between the gene genome mapping (Genome Mapping) is called.
- Department of Biotechnology (DBT) in January 2020 human genome project inspired by (Human Genome Project), the ambitious ” genome India Project ” launched (Genome India Project). The goal of this project is to collect genetic samples of 10,000 citizens from all over India, so that a reference genome can be constructed.
National Institute of Oceanography
- About National Institute of Oceanography:
- It is a multi-disciplinary oceanographic research institute and one of the constituent laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi.
- Headquarters and other centers:
- The center is headquartered in ‘Dona Paula’ (Goa) and three regional offices are located at Kochi (Kerala), Mumbai (Maharashtra) and Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).
- Founded 1960, the International Indian Ocean Expedition under (International Indian Ocean Expedition) was January 1, 1966 respectively.
- Research Area:
- The main function of this institute is to examine and understand the oceanic characteristics of the Indian Ocean.
- This institute conducts research in the branches related to biological, chemical, geological and physical characteristics of oceanography, as well as research in ocean engineering, marine equipment and marine archeology.