Elective Subject – History
Elective Subject – History
1. Sources : Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, archeology, monetary science, monuments, literary sources. Indigenous: primary and secondary; Poetry, science literature, literature, literature of regional languages, religious literature. Foreign Descriptions: Greek, Chinese and Arab Writers
2. Prehistory and Early History: Geographical Factors, Hunting and Collection (Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Age); Beginning of agriculture (Neolithic and Copper Stone Age).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin , Time, Expansion, Features, Fall, Existence and Importance, Art and Architecture.
4. Neolithic cultures: Expansion of pastoral and agricultural cultures outside the Indus, development of community life, settlements, development of agriculture, handicrafts, pottery and iron industry.
5. Arya and Vedic period The spread of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophical literature; Transformations from the Rigvedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economic life; Importance of Vedic Age; Order development of monarchy and varna system.
6. Mahajanapada period : Creation of Mahajanapadas: republican and monarchical; Emergence of city centers; Trade routes, economic development; Typing (coin casting); Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Origin of Magadhas and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their effects.
7. Maurya Empire: Foundations of Maurya Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashok; Concept of religion; The mandate; State system; Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; Foreign contacts; religion; Spread religion; Literature. Disintegration of empire; Sunga and Kanva.
8. North Mauryan period (Indo-Greek, Saka, Kushan, Western satrap): contact with the outside world; Development of city centers, economy, typing, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
9. Early State and Society; In Eastern India, Deccan and South India: Kharavela, Satavahana, Tamil state of the Sangam; Administration, economy, land grants, typing, business categories and town centers; Buddhist center, Sangam literature and culture, art and architecture.
10. Gupta Dynasty, Vakataka and Vardhan Dynasty: State System and Administration, Economic Conditions, Gupta period Typing, Land Grants, Fall of City Centers, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Status of Women, Education and Educational Institutions, Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature , Science, art and architecture.
11. Regional States during the Gupta period: Kadamba Dynasty, Pallava Dynasty, Chalukya Dynasty of Badami; State and Administration, Business Categories, Literature; Development of Vaishnavism and Shaivism. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta, temple institutions and temple architecture; Pal Dynasty, Sen Dynasty, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Parmar Dynasty, Polity and Administration; Cultural aspect. Arab conquerors of Sindh; Alberuni, Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani, Chola dynasty, Hoysala dynasty, Pandya dynasty, polity and administration; Local governance; Development of art and architecture, religious sects, temples and monastic institutions, Aghar dynasty, education and literature, economy and society.
12. Themes infarly Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages of evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and branches, ideas in science and mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750–1200
♦ Polity : Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and rise of Rajputs.
♦ Chola dynasty: Rural Economy and Society
♦ Indian feudalism ♦ Agricultural economy and urban settlements ♦ Trade and commerce ♦ Society: Brahmin status and new social order ♦ Female status ♦ Indian science and technology
14. Cultural tradition of India, 750-1200 ♦ Darshan: Shankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vichitadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimamsa. ♦ Religion: Forms and characteristics of religion, Tamil devotion, sect, development of devotion, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism.
♦ Literature: Sanskrit literature, Development of Tamil literature, Literature of newly developed languages, Kalhan’s Rajatarangini, Alberuni’s India.
♦ Art and architecture: temple architecture, sculpture, painting.
15. Thirteenth Century
♦ Establishment of Delhi Sultanate: Factors behind Gori’s invasion — Gori’s success.
♦ Economic, social and cultural consequences.
♦ Establishment of Delhi Sultanate and early Ottoman Sultan.
♦ Strengthening: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.
16. Fourteenth century
♦ Khilji revolution
♦ Alauddin Khilji: conquest and spread, agricultural and economic measures.
♦ Muhammad Tughluq: Major project, agricultural measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
♦ Firoz Tughlaq: Descriptions of agricultural measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, the fall of Delhi Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Batuta.
17. Thirteenth and Fourteenth Century Society, Culture and Economy
♦ Society, Composition of Rural Society, Governing Class, City Resident, Women, Religious Class, Caste and Slave System under the Sultanate, Bhakti Movement, Sufi Movement.
♦ Culture: Persian literature, literature of regional languages of North India, literature of languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new architectural forms, painting, development of composite culture.
♦ Economy: Agricultural production, urban economy and emergence of agricultural production, trade and commerce.
18. Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Political Events and Economy
♦ Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmani.
♦ Vijayanagara Empire
♦ Lodi Dynasty
♦ Mughal Empire, First Phase: Babur and Humayun
♦ Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s Administration
♦ Portuguese Colonial Establishment
19. Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century: Society and Culture
♦ Regional Cultural Specialties
♦ Literary Traditions
♦ Provincial Architecture
♦ Vijayanagar Society, culture, literature and art of empire.
♦ Victory and strengthening of empire
♦ Establishment of Jagir and Mansab system
♦ Rajput policy
♦ Development of religious and social outlook, principle of sulha-i-kul and religious policy.
♦ Court patronage to art and technology.
21. Mughal Empire in Seventeenth Century
♦ Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
♦ Empire and Zamindars
♦ Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb ♦ Form of
♦ Crisis and rebellion of North Seventeenth Century
♦ Ahom Empire
♦ Shivaji and early Maratha State
22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
♦ Population, Agricultural Production, Craft Production
♦ Commerce with Europe through Town, Dutch, English and French Companies: The Business Revolution.
♦ Indian merchant class, banking, insurance and loan systems
♦ Farmers’ condition, women’s condition
♦ Development of Sikh community and Khalsa Panth
23. Mughal imperial culture
♦ Persian history and other literature
♦ Hindi and other religious literature
♦ Mughal architecture
♦ Mughal painting
♦ Provincial architecture and painting
♦ State music
♦ Science and technology
24. Eighteenth century
♦ Factors of decline of Mughal empire
♦ Regional feudal countries: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
♦ Maratha flourishing under Peshwa
♦ Maratha fiscal and financial system
♦ Afghan power. Uday, Battle of Panipat – 1761
♦ State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of British conquest.
Question Paper-2 Elective Subject – History
1. Europe’s entry into India: Early European settlements; Portuguese and Dutch, English and French East India companies; Their war for suzerainty; Carnatic War; Conflict between Bengal-British and Nawab of Bengal; Siraj and the English; war of Plasi; Importance of Plassey.
2. British expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Zafar and Mir Qasim; Battle of Buxar; Mysore, Maratha; Three English – Maratha Wars; Punjab
3. Early Structure of British Raj: Early Administrative Structure; From diarchy to direct control; Regulating Act (1773); Pitts India Act (1784); Charter Act (1833); The tone of free trade and the changing nature of British colonial rule; English utilitarian and India.
4. Economic impact of British colonial rule
(A) Land-revenue settlement in British India; Permanent settlement; Ryotwari settlement; Mahalwari settlement; Economic impact of revenue management; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agricultural workers; Examination of rural society.
(B) Displacement of traditional trade and commerce; Deindustrialization; Decline of traditional craft; Drain of money; Economic Transformation of India; Railroads and communication networks, including telegraph and postal services; Families and poverty in rural hinterland; European business enterprise and its limitations.
5. Social and Cultural Development: Status of Indigenous Education; Its displacement; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, the emergence of Western education in India; Rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern mother tongue literature; Advancement of science; Christian missionary activities in India.
6. Social and religious reform movement in Bengal and other areas: Rammohan Roy, Brahmo movement; Devendranath Tagore; Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar; Young Bengal Movement; Dayanand Saraswati; Social reform movement in India including sati, widow marriage, child marriage etc. Contribution of Indian Renaissance to the development of modern India; Islamic revivalism – Faraige and Wahhabi movement.
7. India’s response to British rule: Rangpur Dhing (1783), Kol Revolt (1832), Mopala Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), Santhal Hull (1855), Neel Revolt (1859-60), Deccan Viplav (1875) , And the peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries, including Munda Ulgulan (1899–1900); The Rebellion of 1857 – Origin, form, cause of failure, result; Changes in the form of peasant uprising in the post-1857 period; The peasant movement of the 1920s and 1930s.
8. Factors of the Birth of Indian Nationalism : Politics of Associations; Foundation of Indian National Congress; Safety valve favors in connection with the birth of Congress; Programs and goals of the early Congress; Social composition of early congressional leadership; Soft parties and hot parties; Partition of Bengal (1905); Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; Economic and political perspective of the Swadeshi movement; Start of revolutionary extremism in India.
9. Rise of Gandhi: The nature of Gandhi’s nationalism; Gandhi’s public attention; Rowlatt Satyagraha; Khilafat Movement; National politics since the end of the Non-Cooperation Movement to the commencement of the Civil Disobedience Movement, two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; Nehru Report; Round Table Council; Nationalism and peasant movement; Nationalism and the working class movement; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885–1947); Election of 1937 and formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; Quit India Movement; Wavell Plan; Cabinet Mission.
10. Colonial: Constitutional developments in India between 1858 and 1935.
11. Other Links of the National Movement: Revolutionary; Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P., Madras Pradesh, out of India, Left; Left party inside the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Congress Socialist Party, Communist Party of India, other leftists.
12. Politics of Separatism: Muslim League; Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Freedom.
13. Strengthening as a nation: Nehru’s foreign policy; India and its neighbors (1947–1964); Linguistic Reorganization of States (1935–1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Indian princely states; Prince of princely states in electoral politics; National language question.
14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947: Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movement.
15. Economic Development and Political Change: Land Reforms; Politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and Environmental Policy in North Colonial India; The progress of science.
16. Enlightenment and modern ideas
(i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Russo
(ii) Enlightenment in the colonies
(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); Marx’s spread of socialism
17. Basic sources of modern politics
(i) European state system
(ii) American Revolution and Constitution
(iii) French Revolution and its consequences, 1789-1815
(iv) American Civil War and with reference to Abraham Lincoln Abolition of slavery
(v) British republican politics, 1815–1850; Parliamentary reform, free trader, charterist.
(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Effects on Society.
(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.
19. Nation state system
(i) Rise of nationalism in the 19th century
(ii) Nationalism: State formation in Germany and Italy.
(iii) Disintegration of empires in the face of the emergence of nationalism all over the world.
20. Imperialism and Colonialism
(i) South and Southeast Asia
(ii) Latin America and South Africa
(iv) Imperialism and Free Trade: The rise of neo-imperialism.
21. Revolution and counterrevolution
(i) European revolutions of 19th century
(ii) Russian revolution of 1917–1921
(iii) Fascism counter-revolution , Italy and Germany
(iv) Chinese revolution of 1949
22. World war
(i) First and Second World War as Total War: Social Implications
(ii) First World War: Causes and Consequences
(iii) Second World War: Causes and Consequences
23. The World After World War II
(i) Two Powers The emergence of
(ii) the emergence of the third world and non-alignment
(iii) the United Nations and global disputes
24. emancipation from colonial rule
(i) Latin America – Bolivar
(ii) Arab world – Egypt
(iii) Africa – apartheid to republic
(iv) ) South-East Asia – Vietnam
25. De-colonialization and underdevelopment
(i) Factors inhibiting development: Latin America, Africa.
26. Integration of Europe
(i) Post War Establishments NATO and European Community (European Community)
(ii) Strengthening and Dissemination of European Community (European Community)
(iii) European Union
27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and Rise of a Polar World
(i) Soviet Communism and Soviet Factors leading to the collapse of the union, 1985–1991
(ii) Political change in Eastern Europe 1989–2001
(iii) End of the Cold War and US ascendancy as the sole superpower.