Elective Subject – Geography

Elective Subject – Geography

Question Paper-1  Elective Subject – Geography

Principles of Geography

Physical Geography

  1. Geomorphology:  Controlling factors of geomorphic development; Endogenous and exogenous forces; Origin and Development of Crust; Basic Principles of Geomagnetism; Natural conditions of the Earth’s interior; Realization; Continental displacement; Homeostasis; Plate tectonics; Innovative ideas in relation to mountaineering; Volcanism; Concepts of Earthquake and Tsunami, Geography cycle and Visual development; Denudation chronology; Waterway morphology; Erosion page; Gradient development; Applied geomorphology; Ground Hydrology, Economic Geology and Environment.
  2. Climatology: The  world’s heat and pressure tropics; Thermal budget of the Earth; Circulating atmosphere; Atmospheric stability and instability; Global and local wind; Monsoon and jet flow; Air sign and atmosphere; World climate classification of Köppen, Thornwet and Trevartha and Trevartha; hydrologic cycle; Role and response of humans in world climate change and climate change; Applied Climate Science and City Climate.
  3. Oceanography:  Planar topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Heat and salinity of oceans; Heat and salt budget, ocean deposits; Wave currents and tides; Marine resources; Biological, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; Sea level change; Marine law and marine pollution.
  4. Biogeography  : Origin of Soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil Trap; soil erosion; Reduction and Conservation; Factors affecting the global distribution of plants and animals; Problems of forest degradation and measures for conservation; Social forestry; Agricultural forestry; the wildlife; Major gene pool center.
  5. Environmental Geography  : Principles of Ecology; Human ecological adaptation; Human impact on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystems, their management and protection; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and Sustainable Development; Environmental Education and Legislation.

Human Geography 

  1. Perspectives in Human Geography:  Regional Differentiation; Regional synthesis; Bisection and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and location analysis; Radical reform, practical, human and welfare approach; Languages, Religion and Secularism; Cultural regions of the world; Human Development Index |
  2. Economic Geography: World Economic Development:  Measurement and Problems; World resources and their distribution; energy crisis; Growth Limits; World agriculture: formatting of agricultural regions; Agricultural investment and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; food security; Famines: causes, effects and treatment; World industry, locational models and problems; Paradigms of world trade.
  3. Population and Settlement Geography:  Growth and Distribution of World Population; Demographic Attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of redundancy – small and optimal population; Principles of Population; World population problems and policies; Social welfare and quality of life; Population as social capital; Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of major city and category size system; Functional classification of cities; Urban impact area; Village Nagar Prant; Subsidiary city; Urbanization problems and solutions; Sustainable development of cities.
  4. Regional Events:  Concept of State; Types of territories and methods of territorialization; Growth center and growth pole; Territorial imbalance; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Organizing for sustainable development
  5. Models, Principles and Rules in  Human Geography: System Analysis in Human Geography; Malthus’s, Marx’s and demographic transition models; The central place theory of crystal and law; Peru and Budavia; Von Thunen’s Agricultural Location Model, Weber’s Industrial Location Model; Ostov’s growth phase model; Inland and Outland Principles; International Boundaries and Frontier Area Rules.

Question Paper-2  Elective Subject – Geography

Geography of India

  1. Physical configuration:  India’s space relations with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and water separator; Geographical Region; Indian monsoon and rainfall patterns, mechanisms of tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Flooding and drought; Climate Region; Natural vegetation; Soil and their distribution.
  2. Resources:  Land, surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, biological and marine resources; Forest and wildlife resources and their conservation; energy crisis.
  3. Agriculture:  Infrastructure, irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, electricity; Institutional factors: tillage, land holding and land reforms; Cropping models, agricultural productivity, agricultural activity, crop composition, land potential; Agricultural and Social Forestry; Green Revolution and its socio-economic and ecological observation; Importance of rainfed farming; Livestock Resources and White Revolution; Aquaculture, sericulture, beekeeping and poultry farming; Agricultural territorialisation; Agricultural climatic zones; Agricultural Ecological Region.
  4. Industry:  Development of industries; Location factors of cotton, jute, textile industries, iron and steel, aluminum, fertilizers, paper, chemicals and pharmaceuticals automobile, cottage and agro based industries; Industrial clusters including public sector undertakings; Industrialization; New industrial policy; Multinational companies and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco-tourism.
  5. Transport, communication and trade:  Roads, railways, waterways, airways and pipeline networks and their complementary role in regional development; Increasing importance of national and foreign trade ports; trade balance; business policy; Export processing area; Development in communication and information technology and their impact on economy and society; Indian Space Program.
  6. Cultural Configuration:  Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic variations; Religious minority; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural region; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic characteristics; Sex ratio, age structure, literacy rate, workforce, dependency ratio, age; Migration (intra-regional, regional and international) and its related problems, population problems and policies; Health indicator.
  7. Bstiः  type of rural settlement patterns and morphology; Urban development; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Saturnagar and Metropolitan Region; City autoimmune; Slum and related problems; City planning; Urbanization problems and remedies.
  8. Regional Development and  Events: Experience of regional events in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated Rural Development Program; Panchayati Raaz and decentralized events; Command Area Development; Water sharing management; Planning for backward area, desert, unmanageable management, hill, tribal area development; Multilevel planning; Regional Planning and Development of Island Areas.
  9. Political perspective:  Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganization; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; India’s international boundary and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in global affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean Circle.
  10. Contemporary Issues:  Ecological Issues: Environmental Crisis: Landslides, Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods and Droughts, Epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in the pattern of land use; Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment and Management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation, deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agricultural and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Globalization of rivers and Indian economy.

Note:  Candidates will be required to answer a map-based question relevant to the topics given in this paper.

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